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6 Accumulators and Difference lists

Mercury does not in general allow the kind of aliasing that is used in difference lists. Prolog programs using difference lists fall in to two categories — programs whose data flow is “left-to-right”, or can be made left-to-right by reordering conjunctions (the Mercury compiler automatically reorders conjunctions so that all consumers of a variable come after the producer), and those that contain circular dataflow.

Programs which do not contain circular dataflow do not cause any trouble in Mercury, although the implicit reordering can sometimes mean that programs which are tail recursive in Prolog are not tail recursive in Mercury. For example, here is a difference-list implementation of quick-sort in Prolog:

qsort(L0, L) :- qsort_2(L0, L - []).

qsort_2([], R - R).
qsort_2([X|L], R0 - R) :-
	partition(L, X, L1, L2),
	qsort_2(L1, R0 - R1),
	R1 = [X|R2],
	qsort_2(L2, R2 - R).

Due to an unfortunate limitation of the current Mercury implementation (partially instantiated modes don’t yet work correctly), you need to replace all the ‘-’ symbols with commas. However, once this is done, and once you have added the appropriate declarations, Mercury has no trouble with this code. Although the Prolog code is written in a way that traverses the input list left-to-right, appending elements to the tail of a difference list to produce the output, Mercury will in fact reorder the code so that it traverses the input list right-to-left and constructs the output list bottom-up rather than top-down. In this particular case, the reordered code is still tail recursive — but it is tail-recursive on the first recursive call, not the second one!

If the occasional loss of tail recursion causes efficiency problems, or if the program contains circular data flow, then a different solution must be adopted. One way to translate such programs is to transform the difference list into an accumulator. Instead of appending elements to the end of a difference list by binding the tail pointer, you simply insert elements onto the front of a list accumulator. At the end of the loop, you can call ‘list.reverse’ to put the elements in the correct order if necessary. Although this may require two traversals of the list, it is still linear in complexity, and it probably still runs faster than the Prolog code using difference lists.

In most circumstances, the need for difference lists is negated by the simple fact that Mercury is efficient enough for them to be unnecessary. Occasionally they can lead to a significant improvement in the complexity of an operation (mixed insertions and deletions from a long queue, for example) and in these situations an alternative solution should be sought (in the case of queues, the Mercury library uses the pair of lists proposed by Richard O’Keefe).


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