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67 sparse_bitset

%--------------------------------------------------%
% vim: ts=4 sw=4 et ft=mercury
%--------------------------------------------------%
% Copyright (C) 2000-2007, 2011-2012 The University of Melbourne.
% This file may only be copied under the terms of the GNU Library General
% Public License - see the file COPYING.LIB in the Mercury distribution.
%--------------------------------------------------%
%
% File: sparse_bitset.m.
% Author: stayl.
% Stability: medium.
%
% This module provides an ADT for storing sets of integers.
% If the integers stored are closely grouped, a sparse_bitset
% is much more compact than the representation provided by set.m,
% and the operations will be much faster.
%
% Efficiency notes:
%
% A sparse bitset is represented as a sorted list of pairs of integers.
% For a pair `Offset - Bits', `Offset' is a multiple of `int.bits_per_int'.
% The bits of `Bits' describe which of the elements of the range
% `Offset' .. `Offset + bits_per_int - 1' are in the set.
% Pairs with the same value of `Offset' are merged.
% Pairs in which `Bits' is zero are removed.
%
% The values of `Offset' in the list need not be *contiguous* multiples
% of `bits_per_int', hence the name *sparse* bitset.
%
% A sparse_bitset is suitable for storing sets of integers which
% can be represented using only a few `Offset - Bits' pairs.
% In the worst case, where the integers stored are not closely grouped,
% a sparse_bitset will take more memory than an ordinary set, but
% the operations should not be too much slower.
%
% In the asymptotic complexities of the operations below,
% `rep_size(Set)' is the number of pairs needed to represent `Set',
% and `card(Set)' is the number of elements in `Set'.
%
%--------------------------------------------------%
%--------------------------------------------------%

:- module sparse_bitset.
:- interface.

:- import_module enum.
:- import_module list.
:- import_module term.

:- use_module set.

%--------------------------------------------------%

:- type sparse_bitset(T). % <= enum(T).

    % `equal(SetA, SetB' is true iff `SetA' and `SetB' contain the same
    % elements. Takes O(min(rep_size(SetA), rep_size(SetB))) time.
    %
:- pred equal(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in) is semidet.

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % Return an empty set.
    %
:- func init = sparse_bitset(T).
:- pred init(sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det.

:- pred empty(sparse_bitset(T)).
:- mode empty(in) is semidet.
:- mode empty(out) is det.

:- pred is_empty(sparse_bitset(T)::in) is semidet.

:- pred is_non_empty(sparse_bitset(T)::in) is semidet.

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `make_singleton_set(Elem)' returns a set containing just the single
    % element `Elem'.
    %
:- func make_singleton_set(T) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).

    % Note: set.m contains the reverse mode of this predicate, but it is
    % difficult to implement both modes using the representation in this
    % module.
    %
:- pred singleton_set(sparse_bitset(T)::out, T::in) is det <= enum(T).

    % Is the given set a singleton, and if yes, what is the element?
    %
:- pred is_singleton(sparse_bitset(T)::in, T::out) is semidet <= enum(T).

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `contains(Set, X)' is true iff `X' is a member of `Set'.
    % Takes O(rep_size(Set)) time.
    %
:- pred contains(sparse_bitset(T)::in, T::in) is semidet <= enum(T).

    % `member(X, Set)' is true iff `X' is a member of `Set'.
    % Takes O(rep_size(Set)) time.
    %
:- pred member(T, sparse_bitset(T)) <= enum(T).
:- mode member(in, in) is semidet.
:- mode member(out, in) is nondet.

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `insert(Set, X)' returns the union of `Set' and the set containing
    % only `X'. Takes O(rep_size(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- func insert(sparse_bitset(T), T) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred insert(T::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

    % `insert_new(X, Set0, Set)' returns the union of `Set' and the set
    % containing only `X' if `Set0' does not already contain `X'; if it does,
    % it fails. Takes O(rep_size(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- pred insert_new(T::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is semidet <= enum(T).

    % `insert_list(Set, X)' returns the union of `Set' and the set containing
    % only the members of `X'. Same as `union(Set, list_to_set(X))', but may be
    % more efficient.
    %
:- func insert_list(sparse_bitset(T), list(T)) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred insert_list(list(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `delete(Set, X)' returns the difference of `Set' and the set containing
    % only `X'. Takes O(rep_size(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- func delete(sparse_bitset(T), T) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred delete(T::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

    % `delete_list(Set, X)' returns the difference of `Set' and the set
    % containing only the members of `X'. Same as
    % `difference(Set, list_to_set(X))', but may be more efficient.
    %
:- func delete_list(sparse_bitset(T), list(T)) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred delete_list(list(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

    % `remove(X, Set0, Set)' returns in `Set' the difference of `Set0'
    % and the set containing only `X', failing if `Set0' does not contain `X'.
    % Takes O(rep_size(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- pred remove(T::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is semidet <= enum(T).

    % `remove_list(X, Set0, Set)' returns in `Set' the difference of `Set0'
    % and the set containing all the elements of `X', failing if any element
    % of `X' is not in `Set0'. Same as `subset(list_to_set(X), Set0),
    % difference(Set0, list_to_set(X), Set)', but may be more efficient.
    %
:- pred remove_list(list(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is semidet <= enum(T).

    % `remove_leq(Set, X)' returns `Set' with all elements less than or equal
    % to `X' removed. In other words, it returns the set containing all the
    % elements of `Set' which are greater than `X'.
    %
:- func remove_leq(sparse_bitset(T), T) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred remove_leq(T::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

    % `remove_gt(Set, X)' returns `Set' with all elements greater than `X'
    % removed. In other words, it returns the set containing all the elements
    % of `Set' which are less than or equal to `X'.
    %
:- func remove_gt(sparse_bitset(T), T) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred remove_gt(T::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

    % `remove_least(Set0, X, Set)' is true iff `X' is the least element in
    % `Set0', and `Set' is the set which contains all the elements of `Set0'
    % except `X'. Takes O(1) time and space.
    %
:- pred remove_least(T::out, sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is semidet <= enum(T).

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `list_to_set(List)' returns a set containing only the members of `List'.
    % In the worst case this will take O(length(List)^2) time and space.
    % If the elements of the list are closely grouped, it will be closer
    % to O(length(List)).
    %
:- func list_to_set(list(T)) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred list_to_set(list(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det <= enum(T).

    % `sorted_list_to_set(List)' returns a set containing only the members
    % of `List'. `List' must be sorted. Takes O(length(List)) time and space.
    %
:- func sorted_list_to_set(list(T)) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred sorted_list_to_set(list(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det <= enum(T).

    % `to_sorted_list(Set)' returns a list containing all the members of `Set',
    % in sorted order. Takes O(card(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- func to_sorted_list(sparse_bitset(T)) = list(T) <= enum(T).
:- pred to_sorted_list(sparse_bitset(T)::in, list(T)::out) is det <= enum(T).

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `from_set(Set)' returns a bitset containing only the members of `Set'.
    % Takes O(card(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- func from_set(set.set(T)) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).

    % `to_sorted_list(Set)' returns a set.set containing all the members
    % of `Set', in sorted order. Takes O(card(Set)) time and space.
    %
:- func to_set(sparse_bitset(T)) = set.set(T) <= enum(T).

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `count(Set)' returns the number of elements in `Set'.
    % Takes O(card(Set)) time.
    %
:- func count(sparse_bitset(T)) = int <= enum(T).

    % `foldl(Func, Set, Start)' calls Func with each element of `Set'
    % (in sorted order) and an accumulator (with the initial value of `Start'),
    % and returns the final value. Takes O(card(Set)) time.
    %
:- func foldl(func(T, U) = U, sparse_bitset(T), U) = U <= enum(T).

:- pred foldl(pred(T, U, U), sparse_bitset(T), U, U) <= enum(T).
:- mode foldl(pred(in, in, out) is det, in, in, out) is det.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, mdi, muo) is det, in, mdi, muo) is det.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, di, uo) is det, in, di, uo) is det.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, in, out) is semidet, in, in, out) is semidet.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, mdi, muo) is semidet, in, mdi, muo) is semidet.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, di, uo) is semidet, in, di, uo) is semidet.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, in, out) is nondet, in, in, out) is nondet.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, in, out) is cc_multi, in, in, out) is cc_multi.
:- mode foldl(pred(in, di, uo) is cc_multi, in, di, uo) is cc_multi.

:- pred foldl2(pred(T, U, U, V, V), sparse_bitset(T), U, U, V, V) <= enum(T).
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is det, in, in, out, in, out) is det.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, mdi, muo) is det, in, in, out, mdi, muo)
    is det.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, di, uo) is det, in, in, out, di, uo) is det.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, di, uo, di, uo) is det, in, di, uo, di, uo) is det.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is semidet, in, in, out, in, out)
    is semidet.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, mdi, muo) is semidet, in, in, out, mdi, muo)
    is semidet.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, di, uo) is semidet, in, in, out, di, uo)
    is semidet.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is nondet, in, in, out, in, out)
    is nondet.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is cc_multi, in, in, out, in, out)
    is cc_multi.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, in, out, di, uo) is cc_multi, in, in, out, di, uo)
    is cc_multi.
:- mode foldl2(pred(in, di, uo, di, uo) is cc_multi, in, di, uo, di, uo)
    is cc_multi.

    % `foldr(Func, Set, Start)' calls Func with each element of `Set'
    % (in reverse sorted order) and an accumulator (with the initial value
    % of `Start'), and returns the final value. Takes O(card(Set)) time.
    %
:- func foldr(func(T, U) = U, sparse_bitset(T), U) = U <= enum(T).

:- pred foldr(pred(T, U, U), sparse_bitset(T), U, U) <= enum(T).
:- mode foldr(pred(in, in, out) is det, in, in, out) is det.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, mdi, muo) is det, in, mdi, muo) is det.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, di, uo) is det, in, di, uo) is det.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, in, out) is semidet, in, in, out) is semidet.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, mdi, muo) is semidet, in, mdi, muo) is semidet.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, di, uo) is semidet, in, di, uo) is semidet.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, in, out) is nondet, in, in, out) is nondet.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, in, out) is cc_multi, in, in, out) is cc_multi.
:- mode foldr(pred(in, di, uo) is cc_multi, in, di, uo) is cc_multi.

:- pred foldr2(pred(T, U, U, V, V), sparse_bitset(T), U, U, V, V) <= enum(T).
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is det, in, in, out, in, out) is det.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, mdi, muo) is det, in, in, out, mdi, muo)
    is det.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, di, uo) is det, in, in, out, di, uo) is det.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, di, uo, di, uo) is det, in, di, uo, di, uo) is det.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is semidet, in, in, out, in, out)
    is semidet.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, mdi, muo) is semidet, in, in, out, mdi, muo)
    is semidet.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, di, uo) is semidet, in, in, out, di, uo)
    is semidet.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is nondet, in, in, out, in, out)
    is nondet.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, di, uo, di, uo) is cc_multi, in, di, uo, di, uo)
    is cc_multi.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, di, uo) is cc_multi, in, in, out, di, uo)
    is cc_multi.
:- mode foldr2(pred(in, in, out, in, out) is cc_multi, in, in, out, in, out)
    is cc_multi.

    % all_true(Pred, Set) succeeds iff Pred(Element) succeeds
    % for all the elements of Set.
    %
:- pred all_true(pred(T)::in(pred(in) is semidet), sparse_bitset(T)::in)
    is semidet <= enum(T).

    % `filter(Pred, Set) = TrueSet' returns the elements of Set for which
    % Pred succeeds.
    %
:- func filter(pred(T), sparse_bitset(T)) = sparse_bitset(T) <= enum(T).
:- mode filter(pred(in) is semidet, in) = out is det.

    % `filter(Pred, Set, TrueSet, FalseSet)' returns the elements of Set
    % for which Pred succeeds, and those for which it fails.
    %
:- pred filter(pred(T), sparse_bitset(T), sparse_bitset(T), sparse_bitset(T))
    <= enum(T).
:- mode filter(pred(in) is semidet, in, out, out) is det.

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `subset(Subset, Set)' is true iff `Subset' is a subset of `Set'.
    % Same as `intersect(Set, Subset, Subset)', but may be more efficient.
    %
:- pred subset(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in) is semidet.

    % `superset(Superset, Set)' is true iff `Superset' is a superset of `Set'.
    % Same as `intersect(Superset, Set, Set)', but may be more efficient.
    %
:- pred superset(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in) is semidet.

%--------------------------------------------------%

    % `union(SetA, SetB)' returns the union of `SetA' and `SetB'. The
    % efficiency of the union operation is not sensitive to the argument
    % ordering. Takes O(rep_size(SetA) + rep_size(SetB)) time and space.
    %
:- func union(sparse_bitset(T), sparse_bitset(T)) = sparse_bitset(T).
:- pred union(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in,
    sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det.

    % `union_list(Sets, Set)' returns the union of all the sets in Sets.
    %
:- func union_list(list(sparse_bitset(T))) = sparse_bitset(T).
:- pred union_list(list(sparse_bitset(T))::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det.

    % `intersect(SetA, SetB)' returns the intersection of `SetA' and `SetB'.
    % The efficiency of the intersection operation is not sensitive to the
    % argument ordering. Takes O(rep_size(SetA) + rep_size(SetB)) time and
    % O(min(rep_size(SetA)), rep_size(SetB)) space.
    %
:- func intersect(sparse_bitset(T), sparse_bitset(T)) = sparse_bitset(T).
:- pred intersect(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in,
    sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det.

    % `intersect_list(Sets, Set)' returns the intersection of all the sets
    % in Sets.
    %
:- func intersect_list(list(sparse_bitset(T))) = sparse_bitset(T).
:- pred intersect_list(list(sparse_bitset(T))::in, sparse_bitset(T)::out)
    is det.

    % `difference(SetA, SetB)' returns the set containing all the elements
    % of `SetA' except those that occur in `SetB'. Takes
    % O(rep_size(SetA) + rep_size(SetB)) time and O(rep_size(SetA)) space.
    %
:- func difference(sparse_bitset(T), sparse_bitset(T)) = sparse_bitset(T).
:- pred difference(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in,
    sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det.

    % divide(Pred, Set, InPart, OutPart):
    % InPart consists of those elements of Set for which Pred succeeds;
    % OutPart consists of those elements of Set for which Pred fails.
    %
:- pred divide(pred(T)::in(pred(in) is semidet), sparse_bitset(T)::in,
    sparse_bitset(T)::out, sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det <= enum(T).

    % divide_by_set(DivideBySet, Set, InPart, OutPart):
    % InPart consists of those elements of Set which are also in DivideBySet;
    % OutPart consists of those elements of Set which are not in DivideBySet.
    %
:- pred divide_by_set(sparse_bitset(T)::in, sparse_bitset(T)::in,
    sparse_bitset(T)::out, sparse_bitset(T)::out) is det <= enum(T).

%--------------------------------------------------%
%--------------------------------------------------%


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